Concerning the Passover in the
eleventh and twelfth chapters of Exodus

EXODUS 11 (I) And YAHWEH said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether. (2) Speak NOW in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold. (3) And YAHWEH GAVE the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.

EXODUS 11 (4) And Moses said, Thus saith YAHWEH, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt: (5) And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts. (6) And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more. (7) But against any of the Children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that YAHWEH doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel. (8) And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger. (9) And YAHWEH said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that MY wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt. (10) And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and YAHWEH hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

The borrowing may have and should have taken place immediately. That is surely why YAHWEH told Moses to speak "NOW" to them. It is also obvious that they had a minimum of four days to do the borrowing in, for they had to first take up a lamb on the 10th day of the 1st month and keep it up until the 14th.

Exodus 12 (I) And YAHWEH spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, (2) This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. (3) Speak ye unto all the Congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house: (4) And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb. (5) Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: (6) And ye shall keep it [the sacrificial lamb or kid] up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel SHALL KILL IT in the evening [BETWEEN THE EVENINGS (996) (6153)].

Exodus 12 (6) [between the evenings] Mybreh Nyb larvy-tde lhq lk wta wjxsw hzh sdxl Mwy rve hebra de trmsml Mkl hyhw (Ben Asher Hebrew Text)

Shemoth 12: 6: And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: then all the assembly of the congregation of Yisra'el shall kill it between the evenings. (The Scriptures by Institute for Scripture Research)

Exodus 12: 6: And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it between the evenings. (The Word of Yahweh by the Assembly of Yahweh, the newest sacred names translation of the Bible published)

"Between the evenings" is approximately the 9th hour, the same time on the 14th that our Saviour died when He precisely fulfilled the Supreme Sacrifice for which the slaying of the Passover lamb portrayed. {For better understanding on this, please read my article (On what night was the Passover sacrifice eaten?).}

Exodus 12 (7) And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. (8) And they shall eat the flesh in that night [beginning of the 15th], roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. (9) Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof. (10) And ye shall let nothing of it [the sacrificed lamb or kid] remain until the morning [of the 15th]; and that which remaineth of it until the morning [of the 15th] ye shall burn with fire. (11) And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand [ready to leave Egypt, not to go borrowing from the Egyptians]; and ye shall eat it [the sacrificed lamb or kid] in haste: IT [the sacrificed lamb or kid] is YAHWEH'S PASSOVER [Sacrificed victim for the Festival].

According to Strongs, the PASSOVER is:

H6453. pecach, peh'-sakh; from H6452; a pretermission, i.e. exemption; used only technically of the Jewish Passover (the festival or the victim):--passover (offering).

Technically, it is not the Jewish Passover, but it is YAHWEH'S PASSOVER. Strong says that it refers to the Festival or the victim. However, when all the scriptures concerning the Passover are taken into consideration, the fact comes out that sometimes it should also mean the slaying of the Passover Festival victim (the sacrificial lamb or kid) which was slain between the evenings and roasted with fire to be eaten that night. That night was the beginning of the seven day Festival which is called "YAHWEH'S PASSOVER" and is also called the Feast of Unleavened Bread. (This will be sufficiently proved below.)

YAHWEH'S PASSOVER is one of three PILGRIMAGE FESTIVALS. Let us summarize the account of it in Exodus 12 and Deuteronomy 16.

Exodus 12 (6) And ye shall keep it [the sacrificial lamb or kid] up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening [BETWEEN THE EVENINGS (996) (6153)]. (8) And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. (11) And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: IT [the sacrificed lamb or kid] IS YAHWEH'S PASSOVER [Sacrificed victim for the Festival]. ... (14) And this day [They ate it at the beginning of the 15th, the 1st Day of Unleavened Bread] shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a *FEAST [FESTIVAL-H2282-chag] to YAHWEH throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a **FEAST [a PILGRIMAGE FESTIVAL chagag:H2287; (The pilgrimage is to where YAHWEH places HIS name)] by an ordinance for ever.

Below is another account of the same PILGRIMAGE FESTIVAL.

Deuteronomy 16 (1) Observe the month of Abib, and keep the PASSOVER [Passover Festival] to YAHWEH thy Elohim; for in the month of Abib YAHWEH thy Elohim brought thee forth out of Egypt by night [Exodus 12:30-31]. (2) Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the Passover [Sacrificial victim for the Festival] unto YAHWEH thy Elohim, of the flock and the herd, in the place which YAHWEH shall choose, to place HIS name there. (3) Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shall thou eat unleavened bread Therewith [eat unleavened bread with the sacrificed lamb or kid and continue eating the unleavened bread for the full seven days of the Festival], even the bread of affliction; for thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt in haste: that thou mayest remember the day [the 15th] when thou camest forth out the land of Egypt all the days of thy life. (4) And there shall no leaven bread be seen with thee in all thy coast seven days; neither shall any thing of the flesh, which you sacrificeth the first ***[former, first, chief:H7223. rishon] day at even [between the evenings on the 14th], remain all night until the morning. (5) Thou mayest not sacrifice the Passover [Sacrificial victim for the Festival] within any of thy gates, which YAHWEH thy Elohim givest thee; (6) but at the place which YAHWEH thy Elohim shall choose, to place HIS name in [Here was where the pilgrimage was required to be to.], there thou shalt sacrifice the PASSOVER [lamb or kid] at even [between the evenings], ****at the going down of the sun [The sun starts its journey going down shortly after noon], at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt.

Ezekiel also mentions the PASSOVER, a FESTIVAL of seven days!

Ezekiel 45:21 In the first month, in the fourteenth day of the month, ye shall have the PASSOVER [Sacrificial victim sacrificed for the Festival], a FEAST [FESTIVAL-H2282-chag] of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten.

The three above accounts show that YAHWEH'S PASSOVER Festival and the Days of Unleavened Bread Festival are one and the same FESTIVAL. They are a PILGRIMAGE FESTIVAL and there are only three PILGRIMAGE FESTIVALS in the year. If these two were separate that would make four.

Exodus 23 (14) Three times thou shalt keep a FEAST [PILGRIMAGE FESTIVAL-H2287-chagag] unto ME in the year. (15) Thou shalt keep the FEAST [FESTIVAL-H2282-chag] of Unleavened Bread [#I]: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before ME empty (16) And the FEAST [FESTIVAL-H2282-chag] of Harvest, the first-fruits of thy labors [#II], which thou have sown in the field: and the FEAST [FESTIVAL-H2282-chag] of Ingathering [#III], which is in the end of the year [agriculture year], when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field. (17) Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Sovereign YAHWEH.

Now back to verse 12:12 again where we left of in the narrative of chapters 11 and 12:

Exodus 12 (12) For I will pass through the land of Egypt this [that] night [15th], and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the elohim of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am YAHWEH. (13) And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.

Exodus 12 (14) And this [that] day [15th] shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast [FESTIVAL]; to YAHWEH throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast [PILGRIMAGE FESTIVAL-H2287-chagag-one of the three] by an ordinance for ever. (15) Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first [former, first, chief :H7223. rishon] day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses [Putting the leavening out of the houses was just as much a part of the preparation for the Pilgrimage Festival as was the preparing the sacrificial lamb for the feast that began that night which was the beginning of the 15th.]: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. (16) And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you. (17) And ye shall observe the feast of Unleavened Bread; for in this selfsame day [1st Day of Unleavened Bread] have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day [1st Day of Unleavened Bread] in your generations by an ordinance for ever. (18) In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even [beginning of the 15th], ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. (19) Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. (20) Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.

Exodus 12 (21) Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the Passover [Passover sacrificial lamb or kid]. (22) And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. (23) For YAHWEH will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, YAHWEH will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you. (24) And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. (25) And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which YAHWEH will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.

Exodus 12 (26) And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service? (27) That ye shall say, IT [the lamb or kid slain between the evenings of the 14th with its blood smeared on the lintel and the two side post and eaten that night on the 15th] is the sacrifice of YAHWEH'S PASSOVER [sacrificial victim for the Festival], WHO passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt [around midnight on the 15th , the 1st Day of Unleavened Bread], when He smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped. (28) And the Children of Israel went away, and did as YAHWEH had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

According to verse 28, they did as Moses and Aaron commanded. Surely the borrowing was included. It was necessary that they did because they were to leave in haste as these next verses confirm.

Exodus 12 (29) And it came to pass, that at midnight [on the 15th] YAHWEH smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. (30) And Pharaoh rose up in the night [the 15th], he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. (31) And he called for Moses and Aaron by night [the 15th], and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve YAHWEH, as ye have said. (32) Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also. (33) And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste [It doesn't sound like there was much time to go borrowing from the mad Egyptians at that point.]; for they said, We be all dead men. (34) And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. (35) And the children of Israel did [had done] according to the word of Moses; and they [had] borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: (36) And YAHWEH gave [had given] the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they [had] lent unto them such things as they required. And they [had] spoiled the Egyptians.

I believe that the following seven translations of the last two verses above back up my translations of the verbs in them. I think that James Moffatt correctly put both of these verses in brackets as a reminder of that which they had previously had ready to take with them. I also think that these two verses were merely showing what else they took with them besides their flocks, herds, and their dough and kneading troughs.

Exodus 12:35-36 [The Israelites had also done as Moses told them; they had asked the Egyptians for jewels of silver and jewels of gold and raiment, and the ETERNAL had given them such favour with the Egyptians that they let the people have whatever they asked. They had thus taken toll of the Egyptians.] (James Moffatt)

Shemoth 12:35-36 And the children of Yisra'el had done according to the word of Mosheh, and they had asked from the Mistrites objects of silver, and objects of gold, and garments. And YAHWEH gave the people favour in the eyes of the Mistrites, so that they gave them what they asked, and they plundered the Mistrites. (The Scriptures by Institute for Scripture Research)

SH'MOT 12:35-36: The people of Isra'el had done what Moshe had said - they had asked the Egyptians to give them silver and gold jewelry and clothing; and ADONAI had made the Egyptians so favorably disposed toward the people that they had let them have whatever they requested. Thus they plundered the Egyptians. (The Complete Jewish Bible by David H Stern)

Exodus 12:35-36 Meanwhile the Israelites had done as Moses told them, asking the Egyptians for jewelry of silver and gold and for clothing. As the LORD [YAHWEH] had made the Egyptians well-disposed towards them, they let them have what they asked; in this way they plundered the Egyptians. (New English Bible)

Exodus 12:35 And the children of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, and they had asked of the Egyptians utensils of silver, and utensils of gold, and clothing. (DBY-Darby -T 1889)

Exodus 12:35 Now the children of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, and they had asked from the Egyptians articles of silver, articles of gold, and clothing. (NKJV)

Exodus 12:35 The people of Israel had also done as Moses told them, for they had asked of the Egyptians jewelry of silver and of gold, and clothing; (RSV)

Continuing: Exodus 12 (37) And the Children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. (38) And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle. (39) And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual. (40) Now the sojourning of the Children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. (41) And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day [1st Day of Unleavened Bread] it came to pass, that all the hosts of YAHWEH went out from the land of Egypt. (42) It is a night (the 15th) to be much observed unto YAHWEH for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night (the 15th) of YAHWEH to be observed of all the Children of Israel in their generations. (43) And YAHWEH said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the Passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof: (44) But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. (45) A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof. (46) In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof. (47) All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. (48) And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the Passover (Festival) to YAHWEH, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. (49) One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you. (50) Thus did all the children of Israel; as YAHWEH commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they. (51) And it came to pass the selfsame day [1st Day of Unleavened Bread], that YAHWEH did bring the Children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.

Concerning YAHWEH'S PASSOVER Festival, it would have saved a lot of confusion if the famed translators of the following scripture would have translated "Passover" as "the slaying of the victim for the Festival" in Leviticus 23:5.

Leviticus 23:5 en tw prwtw mhni en th tessareskaidekath hmera tou mhnov ana meson twn esperinwn pasca tw kuriw (LXX - Septuagint)

Leviticus 23:5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, between the evening times is the Lord's passover. (LXXE - English Translation from the Septuagint)

Leviticus 23:5 [to YAHWEH] hwhyl [Passover] xop [between the evenings] Mybreh Nyb sdxl rve hebrab Nwsarh sdxb (Ben Asher Hebrew Text)

Leviticus 23:5 In the first month, on the fourteenth of the month, between the evenings, is the Passover to Jehovah. (Green's Literal Translation)

Leviticus 23:5 In the first month, on the fourteenth of the month, between the evenings, is the passover to Jehovah; (Young's Literal Translation)

An ideal translation of Leviticus 23:5 could be translated thus:

"In the fourteenth day of the first month, between the evenings, is the slaying of the sacrificial victim for the Festival to YAHWEH."

YAHshua was indeed YAHWEH'S slain sacrificial victim (Lamb) Who was sacrificed between the evenings on the fourteenth day of the first month for us. HalleluYAH!!!

.......

*H2282. chag, khag; or chag, khawg; from H2287; a FESTIVAL, or a victim therefor:--(solemn) feast (day), sacrifice, solemnity. (Strongs)

**H2287. chagag, khaw-gag'; a prim. root [compare H2283, H2328; prop. to move in a circle, i.e. (specifically) to march in a sacred procession, to observe a festival; by impl. to be giddy:--celebrate, dance, (keep, hold) a (solemn) feast (holiday), reel to and fro. (Strongs)

***H7223. rishon, rishon, [911c]; from H7218; former, first, chief:--

**** For better understanding on "between the evenings" and "the going down of the sun," please read my article (On what night was the Passover sacrifice eaten?).
T.A.H.