History does reveal who made the change from the observance of the Sabbath to the observance of the first day of the week; it also reveals why and when that change was made. To fully understand how and why the change was made it is necessary to understand the development of the New Covenant Congregation within the religious setting in which it was founded.

Because they were HIS people, YAHWEH sent the Good News of the Kingdom of Heaven to the Jewish people first. The New Covenant Congregation's founder, YAHshua the Messiah, was Jewish. YAHshua's twelve Apostles were Jewish. The Apostolic Parent New Covenant Congregation was Jewish. Its first fifteen bishops (properly called "overseers") were Jewish. It had its beginnings within what is usually called Judaism. (Judaism is the Monotheistic religion of the Jewish people that is based on the Tanakh which is called the "old Testament" by the present day Christianity.) In addition to the Tanakh, the Jewish people added their "Oral Law" to the laws and regulations that YAHWEH gave them through Moses. The Oral law contained many burdensome civil and religious laws which contained many legalistic rules, regulations, ceremonies and traditions. The Oral Law was based on Jewish thinking and Jewish interpretation of the "Torah." (The Hebrew word "Torah" is translated into the Greek as the word "Nomos." The Greek word "Nomos" is translated into the English word as "law.") All the authors of the letters and documents that were written by YAHshua's first century followers were Jewish. Paul, the emissary to the Gentiles, was also Jewish.

It is very clear that "Christianity" had one hundred percent Jewish roots. In fact, Christianity was still so firmly embedded in Jewish roots from the time after the destruction of the Temple (70 C.E.) till the time of the last Jewish uprising (132-135 C.E.) that the following observation was made by the noteworthy historian and lecturer Solomon Grayzel. (Chapter 11, page 172 of The History of the Jews.)

{Before long, the Gentiles among the Christians far outnumbered the Jews among them. But it must be remembered that everyone -Jews, Christians and Romans- still looked upon Christianity as a sect of Judaism.}

Paul, the emissary to the Gentiles, made it very clear that the Gentiles were grafted into a body that already contained the Jewish people. He taught that all YAHshua's Jewish and Gentile Congregations and Israel are all portions of YAHWEH’S chosen people. He confirmed this by using the analogy of the chosen people of YAHWEH as being the natural branches of the olive tree, and the Gentiles as the wild olive branches. SOME, not all the natural branches (Israelites), were broken off; the wild olive branches (Gentiles) were grafted in AMONG them. They did NOT replace the whole tree!

Rom. 11 (16) For if the firstfruit be holy, the lump is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the branches. (17) And if some [not all] of the branches [Israelites] be broken off, and thou [Gentiles], being a wild olive tree, wert grafted in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree.

Paul also states the following in his letter to the Congregation at Ephesus.

Eph. 4 (5) One Sovereign, one faith, one baptism, (6) One EL and FATHER of all, WHO is above all, and through all, and in you all. (7) But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Messiah.

On page 148 of the tenth chapter of Solomon Grayzel's book, he affirms that the first century followers of YAHshua observed the regulations of "Jewish life." (As with many other laws, commandments and customs of YAHWEH, the laws and commandments concerning the observance of the Sabbath and HIS annual Feast Days, are usually erroneously referred to as "regulations of Jewish Life," "Jewish Law," and the "Old Law of Moses" by most professing Christians. Likewise, most historians from the early fourth century until the present time erroneously refer to them in the same manner.) "Regulations of Jewish life" certainly included the observance of the seventh day of the week Sabbath that was instituted at the end of Creation and the annual Feasts of YAHWEH that are mentioned in Leviticus 23.

{The little group of Jesus' disciples was still in Jerusalem, waiting for his reappearance to right the evils of the world. They were poor people, mostly Galileans. At their head stood Jesus' favorite disciple, Peter (Simon), and one of Jesus' brothers by the name of James (Jacob). Since they believed that the end of the world was near, they did not work very much, but pooled their resources and led a communistic life, meeting, praying and eating together.}

Solomon Grayzel's choice of the word "communistic" used here is misleading. "Communistic life" is suggestive of living under a compulsory atheistic government system, which definitely was not the case. They believed in ONE Elohim and they lived a life of voluntary sharing. Continuing:

{Whenever they had a chance, they addressed crowds of simple people like themselves, or of Jews who came from the diaspora lands. With the latter, especially, they had a fair measure of success, so that in the course of a few years the Greek Jews [Hellenistic Jews from the Diaspora] among the believers in Jesus far outnumbered the native Palestinians. The Jews in general did not bother about the small group of their own people who added to their Judaism the belief in a Messiah who had been crucified by Rome and had come to life again. The members of the new sect, for their part, did nothing to make themselves objectionable, since they observed all the regulations of Jewish life.}

One can not help but notice that YAHshua’s brother James was included in the New Covenant Congregation that was still observing "Jewish life" during the time of the Apostles. Three and one half decades after YAHshua’s death, this same brother of YAHshua was killed in the Temple area at the Passover festival held at Jerusalem. The Gentile members of the New Covenant Congregation were also there to observe the Passover season (the Days of Unleavened Bread). Most people have been falsely taught that the Gentile believers in YAHshua were separated from the so-called Jewish Feast Days that YAHWEH ordained for HIS people. Proof that the Gentile believers in YAHshua did come together on YAHWEH'S Feast Days is found in Eusebius Pamphili Ecclesiastical History, book two, chapter 23, page 127. In his account of James's death, Eusebius (a fourth century historian) makes the following statement.

{So, stand upon the turret of the Temple that you (James) may be visible on high and your words may be easily heard by all the people, for because of the Passover all the tribes, with the Gentiles also, have come together.}

On page 150 of chap. 10, Solomon Grayzel confirms again that the original New Covenant Congregation continued to be obedient to YAHWEH'S laws, commandments and customs that are erroneously called "Jewish law." He also correctly explained what happened to much of Paul's teaching and how it was received by the pagan (Gentile) believers in YAHshua.

{It is not what happened to Paul personally that is important, but rather what happened to Paul's teachings. Even while he lived ample evidence proves that the people to whom he preached had misunderstood him. He had spoken in terms of high and noble idealism, of charity, of personal righteousness. He urged men to believe in Jesus firmly and, believing in so perfect an example of Godly living, begin to lead a GODLY life them selves. Such righteous people could have no difficulty in meeting the awful day of GOD'S judgment. They would surely survive it, and when the day of resurrection came, such people would surely be permitted to live again and forever. But most of the people who listened to Paul remembered only the connection between believing in Jesus and meriting GOD'S mercy and ultimate resurrection. They skipped the middle step-the need to live godly lives. Thus, faith in Jesus came to be the only and entire basis of the religion adopted by the pagan (Gentile) Christians, while the Judeo-Christians, who lived in Palestine, continued to observe Jewish law.}

From the time Christianity spread among the Gentiles until the present time, Paul's writings became less and less understood. In time, Gentile believers in YAHshua erroneously took Paul's writings to mean that to just "believe in YAHshua" was all that was required of them. Yes, Paul did teach both the Jewish and Gentile members of the New Covenant Congregation that it was most essential to "believe in YAHshua." To believe in YAHshua does not mean for one to only believe the facts about Him, but one must follow the example of living a holy life that was set by YAHshua Who is the very Divine Presence of YAHWEH, manifested as a human being for the redemption of all people! If one refuses to keep YAHWEH'S laws, commandments and HIS ordained customs how can he live the holy life that YAHWEH both desires and requires of him?

Because the New Covenant Congregation kept YAHWEH'S laws, commandments and HIS ordained customs, the members were considered by everyone as being a sect of Judaism. Solomon Grayzel conveyed the truth when he wrote that everyone -Jews, Christians and Romans- still looked upon Christianity as a sect of Judaism.

Almost everyone knows that observance of the seventh day Sabbath and the observance of YAHWEH'S annual Feast Days are the most obvious identifying traits of Judaism. If either the Jewish members or the Gentile members of the New Covenant Congregation had already quit observing the Sabbath and the annual Feast Days, how could they call themselves a sect of Judaism? How could anyone call them a sect of Judaism?

In volume one, chapter fifteen, of his unabridged The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, the famed Edward Gibbons gives much information on the history of the first one hundred years of the New covenant Congregation. (Pages 387-391)

{...The divine authority of Moses and the prophets was admitted, and even established, as the firmest basis of Christianity... The history of the church of Jerusalem affords a lively proof of the necessity of those precautions, and of the deep impression which the Jewish religion had made on the minds of its sectaries [sects that dissent in any form from the main established religion]. The first fifteen bishops of Jerusalem were all circumcised Jews; and the congregation over which they presided united the law of Moses with the doctrine of Christ.}

Some important facts should be given here to help define what is meant by the "law (statutes and judgments i.e. enactments & verdicts of the enactments that YAHWEH gave through Moses in that Old Covenant) of Moses" and the "Law ((interpretation of the Torah under the New Covenant)) of Christ." In the Hebrew language, the "law of Moses" is called the "Torah" of Moshe (Moses). It was referred to in the following ways: (A) During the infancy of the New Covenant Congregation, the Law of Moses usually referred to the teaching of Moses found in the first five books of the Holy Scriptures. (B) Part of the time it referred to all the teaching in the Tanakh (the Old Testament). It included the teaching of Moses, the Prophets and the authors of the other books, called "The Writings," in the Holy Scriptures. (C) Some of the time the Law of Moses referred to all the teaching of Moses, the Prophets, the Writings, and the Oral Law that was added by the Jewish people. (D) At other times, it referred to the teaching of Moses, the Prophets, the Writings, the Jewish Oral Law, and the Rabbinical interpretations of the teaching of Moses. The reason the latter three are also classified as the "Law of Moses" is because they are supposed to be the current interpretation of the "Law of Moses" for each current generation.

In the Hebrew language, the "Doctrine of Jesus the Christ" (most commonly referred to as "Law of Christ") would be the "Torah of YAHshua HaMashiach." The "Law, Torah, Doctrine, or Teaching of YAHshua" is based on all the teaching found in the teachings of Moses, the prophets and all the writings in the Holy Scriptures concerning Him. The teaching of Moses includes all the laws and commandments that YAHWEH gave HIS people Israel for their good health and holiness. Many people do not believe that the "Law of Moses" is a part of the "Law of YAHshua." YAHshua who was the divine presence of YAHWEH manifested as a human being said that He did not come to destroy the Torah (statutes and judgments i.e. enactments & verdicts of the enactments that YAHWEH gave through Moses in the Old Covenant) or (teaching of) the Prophets.

Mat. 5 (17) Think not that I am come to destroy the law [Torah, or the teaching of Torah by Moses], or [the teaching of] the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. [to fulfill what the Torah and the Prophets taught concerning Him] (18) For verily I say unto you, Till Heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law [Torah, or the teaching of Torah by Moses], till all be fulfilled.

YAHshua came the first time to fulfill that which was taught concerning Himself through the laws (teachings) of the sacrifices and ceremonies that YAHWEH gave through Moses {Sacrifices and ceremonies were only part of the "Law of Moses"}. He also came to fulfill all things that were taught by the Prophets and the Writings in the Tanakh (Old Testament). This is the same thing that He was referring to when He spoke to His disciples after His resurrection.

Luke 24 (25) Then He said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: (26) Ought not Messiah to have suffered these things, and to enter into His glory? (27) And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, He expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning Himself. (44) And He said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Me. (45) Then opened He their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures, (46) And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Messiah to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: (47) And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in His name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. (48) And ye are witnesses of these things. (49) And, behold, I send the promise of My FATHER upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.

During the Passover season, including the Days of unleavened Bread, His death, burial, resurrection, and ascension to the Father took place. On the Day of Pentecost, Acts chapter two, the Holy Spirit was given. These were the "ALL" that was to be fulfilled before a change in the Torah, was to be made!

Continuing from Gibbons:

{It was natural that the primitive tradition of a church which was founded only forty [fifty] days after the death of Christ, and was governed almost as many years under the immediate inspection of his apostle (James), should be received as the standard of orthodoxy. [One would certainly think that would be the case, but as one may observe it very soon changed.] The distant churches very frequently appealed to the authority of their venerable Parent, and relieved her distresses by a liberal contribution of alms. But when numerous and opulent societies were established in the great cities of the empire, in Antioch, Alexandria, Ephesus, Corinth, and Rome, the reverence which Jerusalem had inspired to all the Christian colonies insensibly diminished. [A zealous believer in YAHshua should seek to learn why it diminished.] The Jewish converts, or, as they were afterwards called, the Nazarenes, who had laid the foundations of the church, soon found themselves overwhelmed by the increasing multitudes that from all the various religions of polytheism enlisted under the banner of Christ: and the Gentiles, who, with the approbation of their peculiar apostle, [Paul] had rejected the intolerable weight of Mosaic ceremonies, at length refused to their more scrupulous brethren the same toleration which at first they had humbly solicited for their own practice.}

Concerning the Apostle Paul whom Gibbons said had rejected the intolerable weight of Mosaic ceremonies: Paul believed and taught that the observance of sacrificial and ceremonial laws was not a continuing necessity because they were fulfilled by YAHshua when He became the ultimate sacrifice for sins. Did Paul's teaching cause many of the Gentiles to quit practicing YAHWEH'S laws, commandments and His ordained customs concerning things such as HIS Sabbath and HIS annual Feast Days? Absolutely not! The misinterpreting of Paul's writings had some influence on them to quit following the example that was set by the Parent Congregation which was still in Jerusalem. They were also greatly influenced by the persecution of the Jews when Judaism was temporarily banned during the time of Hadrian. As was stated previously, everyone -Jews, Christians and Romans- still looked upon Christianity as a sect of Judaism.

Gibbon continues:

{The ruin of the temple, of the city, and of the public religion of the Jews, was severely felt by the Nazarenes [As Solomon Grayzel stated (previously quoted) the members of the Jewish Parent Congregation were also called "Nazarenes."]; as in their manners, though not in their faith, they maintained so intimate a connection with their impious countrymen, whose misfortunes were attributed by the Pagans to the contempt, and more justly ascribed by the Christians to the wrath, of the Supreme Deity. The Nazarenes retired from the ruins of Jerusalem to the little town of Pella beyond the Jordan, where that ancient church languished above sixty years in solitude and obscurity [from 66 A.D. till 135 A.D.]. They still enjoyed the comfort of making frequent and devout visits to the Holy City, and the hope of being one day restored to those seats which both nature and religion taught them to love as well as to revere. But at length, under the reign of Hadrian, the desperate fanaticism of the Jews filled up the measure of their calamities; and the Romans, exasperated by their repeated rebellions, exercised the rights of victory with unusual rigour. The emperor founded, under the name of Aelia Capitolina, a new city on Mount Sion, to which he gave the privileges of a colony; and denouncing the severest penalties against any of the Jewish people who should dare to approach its precincts, he fixed a vigilant garrison of a Roman cohort to enforce the execution of his orders.}

Solomon Grayzel mentions Hadrian building Aelia Capitolina (page 175).

{At last, in 130, Hadrian came to Judea. He was a great builder; he hated to see once flourishing cities lie in ruins. He ordered Jerusalem rebuilt. But it was to be a pagan city, to be called Aelia Capitolina! It was to have an altar; but it was to be a pagan altar, dedicated to Jupiter whose high priest Hadrian was.}

Gibbons continues:

{The Nazarenes had only one way left to escape the common proscription, and force of truth was on this occasion assisted by the influence of temporal advantages. They elected Marcus for their bishop, a prelate of the race of the Gentiles, and most probably a native either of Italy or of some of the Latin provinces. At his persuasion the most considerable part [what he means by considerable part is not clear.] of the congregation renounced the Mosaic law [Torah], in the practice of which they had persevered above a century. By this sacrifice of their habits and prejudices they purchased a free admission into the colony of Hadrian, and more firmly cemented their union with the Catholic church.}

At that time, the Catholic Church, which consisted mostly of Gentiles who had misinterpreted Paul's writings, had already lost touch with the Parent Congregation for over 60 years.

The "most considerable part" of the Parent Congregation more firmly cemented their union with the Catholic Church when they deserted the Apostolic Parent Congregation and its teachings by giving up the practices which they had practiced for over one hundred years! Most of the first forty years of these one hundred years were under the inspection of YAHshua’s twelve Apostles and James, the brother of YAHshua. The twelve Apostles and James were personally discipled by YAHshua, the founder of the New Covenant Parent Congregation. They should know what practices to approve. So, it would seem reasonable to believe that the Parent Congregation would be practicing only what was approved by the twelve Apostles and James. The "most considerable part" (the part that deserted the Apostolic Parent Congregation) and the Catholic Church certainly did not have more truth and light than was given to the Apostolic Parent Congregation by the twelve Apostles and James the brother of YAHshua! Not only did the "most considerable part" desert the Parent Congregation and its apostolic teachings, they took the name and honors of the Apostolic Parent Congregation back with them to the new pagan city!

{When the name and honours of the church of Jerusalem had been restored [It appears that the "name and honors" were truly separated from their rightful owners.] to Mount Sion, the crimes of heresy and schism were imputed to the obscure remnant of the Nazarenes [the true parent Congregation] which refused to accompany their Latin bishop. They still preserved their former habitation of Pella, spread themselves into the villages adjacent to Damascus, and formed an inconsiderable church in the city of Beroea, or, as it is now called, of Aleppo, in Syria. The name of Nazarenes was deemed too honourable for those Christian Jews, and they soon received, from the supposed poverty of their understanding, as well as of their condition, the contemptuous epithet of Ebionites. In a few years after the return of the church of Jerusalem, it became a matter of doubt and controversy whether a man who sincerely acknowledged Jesus [YAHshua] as the Messiah, but who still continued to observe the law [Torah] of Moses , could possibly hope for salvation. The humane temper of Justin Martyr inclined him to answer this question in the affirmative; and though he expressed himself with the most guarded diffidence, he ventured to determine in favour of such an imperfect Christian, if he were content to practice the Mosaic ceremonies without pretending to assert their general use of necessity. But when Justin was pressed to declare the sentiment of the church, he confessed that there were very many among the orthodox Christians who not only excluded their Judaising brethren from the hope of salvation, but who declined any intercourse with them in the common offices of friendship, hospitality, and social life. The more rigorous opinion prevailed, as it was natural to expect, over the milder; and an eternal bar of separation was fixed between the disciples of Moses and those of Christ.}

The ceremonial laws that were given through Moses were administered through the Levitical priesthood. The Levitical priesthood went out of existence with the destruction of the Temple sixty-five years before the above incident. For that reason, it seems that Gibbon must be referring not only to circumcision, but also to YAHWEH'S many other laws, commandments and customs, especially the ones concerning the Sabbath, the Feast Days, and the dietary laws as "Mosaic Ceremonies." Most professing Christians make the same mistake. Gibbon also refers to the part of the Apostolic Parent Congregation that did not defect from the teaching of the twelve Apostles and James the brother of YAHshua as "Judaisers." The Gentiles who misunderstood Paul's writings, joined together with the ones that defected from the Parent Congregation, Gibbon now sees as the orthodox Christians. The title really belongs to the Parent Congregation who did not defect from the apostolic teachings! He calls the Parent Congregation the disciples of Moses; he calls the Gentiles who misunderstood Paul's writings joined together with the ones that defected from the Parent Congregation the disciples of YAHshua. What an error! Continuing with Gibbon's quotations:

{The unfortunate Ebionites [the part of the Parent Congregation that did not defect]: rejected from one religion [orthodox Judaism] as apostates, and from the other [the Catholic Church and the defectors from the Parent Congregation] as heretics, found themselves compelled to assume a more decided character; and although some traces of that obsolete sect may be discovered as late as the fourth century, they insensibly melted away either into the church or the synagogue.}

Even at the time that some of the Parent Congregation defected, many Gentiles were still faithfully observing YAHWEH'S laws and commandments, which certainly included HIS Sabbath, HIS Feast Days, and many other customs that HE ordained. That is the reason they were still recognized as a sect of Judaism. So, when Hadrian prohibited the practice of Judaism many of the Gentiles undoubtedly omitted the observance of many of the laws that looked "Jewish," as most people erroneously call many of YAHWEH'S laws. Nothing looks more "Jewish" to anti-Semitic people than someone observing YAHWEH'S laws, especially the ones concerning HIS Sabbath and HIS annual Feast Days. The proof that Hadrian prohibited the practice of Judaism is in the next quotations quoted directly from Solomon Grayzel's history of the Jews. (pages 175 and 177) One may notice that a portion of this has already been quoted.

{At last, in 130, Hadrian came to Judea. He was a great builder; he hated to see once flourishing cities lie in ruins. He ordered Jerusalem rebuilt. But it was to be a pagan city, to be called Aelia Capitolina! It was to have an altar; but it was to be a pagan altar, dedicated to Jupiter whose high priest Hadrian was. ... Even before the fighting was over, Jerusalem began to be rebuilt as a pagan city. By a strange chance, the foundations of the new city were laid on the usual day of misfortune for the Jews, the 9th of Abib. Jews were prohibited from coming near the city. Thereafter, annually on that day many would come from every part of the country and bribe the Roman soldiers to let them weep over the ruins of their former glory. Hadrian prohibited the practice of Judaism. He forbade circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and the fixation of the calendar which was so important for the celebration of the holidays.}

Also at that time, the believers in YAHshua were being excluded from the synagogues by the Jews. Page 199 of Solomon Grayzel's book.

{Until the Bar Kochba revolt, 132-135, the difference between Judaism and Christianity was not clear even to most Jews. The Roman government, the pagans and many Jews looked upon Christianity as a heretical sect in Judaism. The Jewish Christians, who like Jesus and his immediate disciples believed in the need for following Jewish traditions, used to attend the synagogues and participate in Jewish life. But during the revolt it became clear to the Jews that neither Jewish Christians nor Gentile Christians wanted the Jews to win. On the contrary, the Christians were rather anxious to have the Jews defeated since the latter looked upon Bar Kochba as a Messiah, and his victory would destroy many Christians claims for Jesus. Some Christians were active against the Jews. As a result the Jews adopted regulations which successfully excluded all Christians from the synagogues and from Jewish life in general. For example, the Jews included in their Amidah (the Eighteen Benedictions) a prayer asking for the disappearance of sectarians. Thereafter, there was no more hope of reconciliation.}

The reason the believers could not pray the prayer for the disappearance of sectarians is because Christianity was a sect or sectary of Judaism. They were considered a sect of Judaism because they dissented to established Judaism when they differed on three main subjects as follows:

The first subject: The Believers in YAHshua believed that YAHshua HaMashiach was a portion of the very Divine Presence of YAHWEH manifested as a human being for the redemption of all people. The Jewish people view this as two Elohim.

The second subject: The Believers in YAHshua believed that the observance of sacrificial and ceremonial laws was not a continuing necessity because they were fulfilled by YAHshua when He became the ultimate sacrifice for sins. However, many Christians continued observing them until the Temple was destroyed. It appears they, Paul included, observed the sacrificial and ceremonial laws in order to explain to the Jewish people that the sacrificial and ceremonial laws conveyed YAHWEH'S plan of redemption for all people.

The third subject: The Believers in YAHshua did not believe they were obligated to follow all of Judaism's Oral Laws. Those Oral laws consisted of many burdensome civil and religious laws that contained many legalistic rules, regulations, ceremonies and tradition.

The first recorded law, civil or ecclesiastical, to change the keeping of the Sabbath from the seventh day of the week to the first day of the week was made by Emperor Constantine in 321 A.D. Page 27 of Documents of the Christian Church, selected and edited by Henry Bettenson.

{State Recognition of Sunday, 321

Constantine to Elpidius. All judges, city people and craftsmen shall rest on the venerable day of the Sun. But countrymen may without hindrance attend to agriculture, since it often happens that this is the most suitable day for sowing grain or planting vines, so that the opportunity afforded by divine providence may not be lost, for the right season is of short duration. 7 March 321.God Justinianus, III.xiil (Corp. Jur. Civ. ii. 127)}

Above is Constantine's law and man's wisdom; below is YAHWEH'S law and HIS wisdom!

Exo. 20 (8) Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. (9) Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: (10) But the seventh day is the Sabbath of YAHWEH thy Elohim: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: (11) For in six days YAHWEH made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore YAHWEH blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.

Exo. 34 (21) Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest: in earing time and in harvest thou shalt rest.

The following took place at the first council of Nicaea, convened by Constantine in the year of 325 A.D. (Page 269 of Solomon Grayzel's book (The History of the Jews.)

{The council of churchmen which met at Nicaea in 325 undertook to separate the Jews from the Christians. [Why? One must remember that the Jews and the Christians are both the people of YAHWEH!] It forbade Christians to eat matzah [unleavened bread] on Passover, or to celebrate this holiday at the same time as the Jews. [If the Christians were not keeping this holiday, why did the so-called "Christian clergy" try to forbid them from keeping it at the properly appointed time on the Jewish calendar?] It prohibited Christians from visiting synagogues and listening to Jewish preachers. It also urged them not to observe the day of rest on Saturday [YAHWEH'S BLESSED SABBATH], and instituted Sunday [the substitute sabbath blessed by the Emperor Constantine and the fourth century "Christian clergy"] as the only Christian Sabbath. The bishops prevailed upon the emperor to prevent pagans from becoming converts to Judaism, and also to take away from the Jews some of the political privileges which they had long enjoyed.}

Some years later, the "Christian clergy" objected to the fact that a great many of the believers in YAHshua still continued to observe YAHWEH'S blessed and ordained Sabbath and HIS annual Feast Days according to the calendar that YAHWEH provided HIS people Israel. The Jewish people had this calendrical information. This irked the "Christian clergy." Finally, the "Christian clergy" prevailed upon the Roman government to forbid the Patriachate (the highest office in the Jewish government) from giving the believers in YAHshua access to their calendrical information. Instead of observing YAHWEH'S ordained Sabbath and annual Feast Days, the "Christian clergy" wanted them to observe the first day of the week, the so-called "Christian Sabbath" that was ordained by the councils of men. (Pages 203 & 204 of Solomon Grayzel's book.)

There were, however, a considerable number of Christians who also waited for the Patriarch's calendrical information. For a great many Christians still observed the holidays (weekly Sabbaths and annual Feast Days) common to Judaism and Christianity, especially Passover (Easter) [It must be noted that Easter is not the same thing as Passover for Easter is a pagan celebration in honor of the pagan goddess "Astarte," also called "Ishtar."], at the same time as the Jews, just as many of them observed the Jewish Sabbath rather than the Christian Sunday. This dependence on Judaism irked the Christian clergy, and about the middle of the fourth century they prevailed upon the Roman government to forbid the Patriarch to send emissaries with such information.}

From his next paragraph which concerned the last Patriarch, Solomon Grayzel wrote the following:

{... and in the meantime some Christian bishops prevailed upon the emperor to discontinue the Patriachate altogether. In 429, the Roman government announced the abolition of the office.}  

It is very obvious that Constantine and the "Christian clergy" with their councils of men who were not inspired by YAHWEH have forbidden people to follow in the footsteps of YAHshua!

The defection from the Parent Congregation occasioned by the banning of Judaism by Hadrian, the misinterpreting of Paul's writings, the exclusion of the believers in YAHshua from the synagogues by the Jews, and the changing of YAHWEH'S laws by the councils of men, dealt a very hard impact upon the New Covenant Congregation! However, according to the above quotations, there were still a great many members of the New Covenant Congregation that were still keeping YAHWEH'S Sabbath as late as the middle of the 4th century. They continued obeying YAHWEH and to observe HIS laws, HIS commandments, and HIS ordained customs instead of obeying the councils of men.

According to the above quotations from the pages of history, the Councils of men who were not inspired by YAHWEH attempted to usurp the authority of YAHWEH by commanding the New Covenant Congregation to rest on their so-called "Christian Sabbath" (the substitute sabbath blessed only by Constantine and the "Christian clergy") instead of on YAHWEH'S blessed and sanctified seventh day Sabbath. One must choose to obey the council of YAHWEH or the councils of men. When making that choice, one should take into consideration the following two relevant quotations:

Acts 5 (29) Then Peter and the other Apostles answered and said, we ought to obey YAHWEH rather than men.

Mat. 10 (28) And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear HIM [YAHWEH] which [WHO] is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

YAHWEH'S annual set appointed times are discussed in the next chapter.